There is a rapidly closing window of opportunity to secure a liveable future for all. The global surface temperature is already 1.1°C higher than in 1850.
Most of this change is due to unsustainable energy use, land use and changes in land use, lifestyles, and consumption and production patterns in different regions.
Whether warming is limited to 1.5°C or 2°C depends on how much greenhouse gas emissions we cut this decade and how much carbon we emit until net-zero CO2 emissions.
All global modelled pathways that limit warming to 1.5°C (>50%) with no or limited overshoot and those that limit warming to 2°C (>67%) involve fast and deep cuts in all sectors this decade. For these two pathways, global net zero CO2 emissions can be reached at the beginning of the 2050s and the end of the 2070s, respectively.
Enhancing technology innovation systems is key to accelerating the widespread adoption of technologies and practices.
Global GHG emissions in 2030, based on Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted by October 2021, make it harder to keep global warming below 2°C.
There are differences between the projected emissions based on policies that have been put into place and based on NDCs.
There is enough money to close the investment gaps, but the amount going into action worldwide right now is insufficient, especially in developing countries.
Communities that are weak and have contributed the least to climate change in the past are hit the hardest.
Options for possible adaptation may become more limited and less useful as global warming worsens.
If warming exceeds 1.5°C, it could be lowered slowly by achieving and keeping net negative CO2 emissions worldwide. However, overshooting may have some irreversible effects.
Adaptation can improve by giving more help to the places and people who are most vulnerable to climate hazards. In addition, putting climate adaptation into programs for social protection makes people more resilient.
Effective climate action can be made possible by political commitment, well-aligned multilevel governance, institutional frameworks, laws, policies, and strategies, and easier access to money and technology. Also, regulatory and economic tools can help reduce emissions and make the climate more resilient.